Revision: Thu, 22 Feb 2024 17:59:01 GMT

Framework — Interceptors

One of the key features of Spiral is its support for interceptors, which can be used to add functionality to the application without modifying the core code of the application. This can help to keep your codebase more modular and maintainable.

Here is some benefits of using interceptors:

  • Separation of Concerns: Using interceptors allows you to keep the different parts of your application separate and organized. For example, you can use an interceptor to handle authentication without having to add that code to every single part of your application that requires authentication. This makes it a lot easier to understand and maintain your code.
  • Reusability: With interceptors, you can write code once and use it in multiple parts of your application. This means you don't have to keep writing the same code over and over again, saving you time and reducing the likelihood of mistakes.
  • Modularity: The ability to add, remove or replace interceptors without affecting the rest of the application makes it more flexible and easy to update.
  • Performance: Interceptors can be used to optimize the performance of the application by caching responses, reducing the number of database queries, and more. This means your application will be faster, and less likely to slow down when a lot of users are accessing it at the same time.
  • Ease of use: Adding interceptors to your application is relatively easy and straightforward, making it accessible for developers of all skill levels.

You can use interceptors with various components such as:

Note
The spiral/hmvc component is required for the domain cores. The web bundle includes this package by default.

Domain Core

In order to use interceptors, you need to have a core class that will be responsible for running the specific logic that can be intercepted before or after the call.

For example, let's say you have a database layer and you need to log database queries, measure query times, and log slow queries.

To achieve this, you can create a DatabaseQueryCore class that implements the Spiral\Core\CoreInterface. This class would be responsible for running the database query and returning the query result.

php
app/src/Integration/Database/DatabaseQueryCore.php
namespace App\Integration\Database;

use Spiral\Core\CoreInterface;
use Cycle\Database\DatabaseManager;
use Cycle\Database\StatementInterface;

final class DatabaseQueryCore implements CoreInterface
{
    public function __construct(
        private readonly DatabaseManager $manager
    ) {
    }

    public function callAction(string $database, string $sql, array $parameters = []): StatementInterface
    {
        $sqlParameters = $parameters['sql_parameters'] ?? [];
        \assert(\is_array($sqlParameters));

        $database = $this->manager->database($database);
        return $database->query(
            $sql,
            $sqlParameters
        );
    }
}

Then you can use the Spiral\Core\InterceptableCore class that allows you to register interceptors and call them when you handle the core class.

php
use Spiral\Core\InterceptableCore;
use App\Application\Database\DatabaseQueryCore;
use Cycle\Database\DatabaseManager;

$core = new InterceptableCore(
  new DatabaseQueryCore(new DatabaseManager(...))
);

Here is an example of how to call the DatabaseQueryCore class to handle database queries:

php
// Execute a SELECT statement on the 'default' database
$result = $core->callAction(
  'default', 
  'SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = ?', 
  ['sql_parameters' => [1]]
);

The callAction method will return a Cycle\Database\StatementInterface object, which represents the result of the query.

Now let's talk about interceptors.

Interceptors

Interceptors work similarly to middleware in HTTP requests, in that they allow developers to add functionality to the application at various points in the processing flow. However, unlike middleware which is typically specific to HTTP requests, interceptors can be used to add functionality to a wide range of components.

Interceptors should implement the Spiral\Core\CoreInterceptorInterface interface, which requires them to define a callAction method. This method is called by the framework at specific points in the application's execution, such as before or after a controller action is invoked.

For example, we could create an SlowQueryDetectorInterceptor class that implements the CoreInterceptorInterface and logs slow queries.

php
app/src/Integration/Database/Interceptor/SlowQueryDetectorInterceptor.php
namespace App\Integration\Database\Interceptor;

use Psr\Log\LoggerInterface;
use Spiral\Core\CoreInterceptorInterface;
use Spiral\Core\CoreInterface;

class SlowQueryDetectorInterceptor implements CoreInterceptorInterface
{
    public function __construct(
        private readonly LoggerInterface $logger
    ) {
    }

    public function process(string $database, string $sql, array $parameters, CoreInterface $core): mixed
    {
        $startTime = \microtime(true);

        $result = $core->callAction($database, $sql, $parameters);
        
        $elapsed = \microtime(true) - $startTime;

        if ($elapsed > 0.1) {
            $this->logger->warning(
                'Slow query detected',
                [
                    'database' => $database,
                    'sql' => $sql,
                    'parameters' => $parameters,
                    'elapsed' => $elapsed
                ]
            );
        }

        return $result;
    }
}

Now we can register the SlowQueryDetectorInterceptor class with the InterceptableCore class and call the callAction method to handle the database query.

php
use Spiral\Core\InterceptableCore;
use App\Application\Database\DatabaseQueryCore;
use Cycle\Database\DatabaseManager;

$core = new InterceptableCore(
  new DatabaseQueryCore(new DatabaseManager(...))
);

$core->addInterceptor(new SlowQueryDetectorInterceptor(new Logger(...)));

// Execute a SELECT statement on the 'default' database
$result = $core->callAction(
  'default', 
  'SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = ?', 
  ['sql_parameters' => [1]]
);

Now every time the callAction method is called, the SlowQueryDetectorInterceptor class will be called and will log slow queries.

We can also add multiple interceptors to the InterceptableCore class. For example, we could create another one interceptor that handles Database exceptions and in some cases treies to reconnect to the database.

php
app/src/Integration/Database/Interceptor/DatabaseConnectionInterceptor.php
namespace App\Integration\Database\Interceptor;

use Spiral\Core\CoreInterceptorInterface;
use Spiral\Core\CoreInterface;
use Cycle\Database\Exception\StatementException\ConnectionException;

final class DatabaseConnectionInterceptor implements CoreInterceptorInterface
{
    // ...

    public function process(string $database, string $sql, array $parameters, CoreInterface $core): mixed
    {
        try {
            return $core->callAction($database, $sql, $parameters);
        } catch (ConnectionException $e) {
            // Try to reconnect...

            // For example, switch to another database...
            return $this->process('slave', $sql, $parameters, $core);
        }
    }
}

Don't forget to register the DatabaseConnectionInterceptor class with the InterceptableCore class.

php
$core->addInterceptor(new DatabaseConnectionInterceptor(...));
$core->addInterceptor(new SlowQueryDetectorInterceptor(new Logger(...)));

You can pass any parameters to the callAction method, that can be used by interceptors. For example:

php
public function process(string $database, string $sql, array $parameters, CoreInterface $core): mixed
{
    // $sql = SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = ?
    $sql .= ' LIMIT ?';
    
    $parameters['sql_parameters'][] = 10;
    
    return $core->callAction($database, $sql, $parameters);
}

As you can see interceptors are a convenient way to intercept and modify the behavior of certain parts of the application, making it more functional and efficient, while keeping the domain specific logic clean and maintainable.

Events

Event Description
Spiral\Core\Event\InterceptorCalling The Event will be fired before calling the interceptor.

Note
To learn more about dispatching events, see the Events section in our documentation.