Revision: Wed, 22 Mar 2023 19:19:50 GMT

The Basics — Errors handling

During the development process, it is common for errors and exceptions to arise. Debugging these exceptions can be a challenging and time-consuming task, but it is a critical aspect of the development process. Spiral offers a range of tools and techniques for debugging exceptions and identifying the underlying cause of issues.

Exception rendering

By default, the framework uses the Spiral\Exceptions\Renderer\PlainRenderer for rendering exceptions. In some cases, for example when DEBUG=true you may prefer to render a beautiful error page, with code highlighting, such as filp/whoops or yiisoft/error-handler.

Available Renderers

The Spiral\Exceptions\Renderer\ConsoleRenderer, Spiral\Exceptions\Renderer\JsonRenderer, and Spiral\Exceptions\Renderer\PlainRenderer are available out of the box.

Renderer Formats
ConsoleRenderer console, cli
JsonRenderer application/json, json
PlainRenderer text/plain, text, plain, cli, console

Custom Renderer

For example, to integrate with the yiisoft/error-handler package, a developer would create a custom HtmlRenderer class that implements the Spiral\Exceptions\ExceptionRendererInterface to render the exception.

Here is an example of integration with the package:

php
app/src/Application/Exception/Renderer/HtmlRenderer.php
namespace App\Application\Exception\Renderer;

use Spiral\Exceptions\ExceptionRendererInterface;
use Spiral\Exceptions\Verbosity;
use Yiisoft\ErrorHandler\Renderer\HtmlRenderer as YiiHtmlRenderer;
use Yiisoft\ErrorHandler\ThrowableRendererInterface;

final class HtmlRenderer implements ExceptionRendererInterface
{
    public function __construct(
        private readonly YiiHtmlRenderer $renderer
    ) {
    }

    public function render(
        \Throwable $exception,
        ?Verbosity $verbosity = Verbosity::BASIC,
        string $format = null,
    ): string {
        if ($verbosity >= Verbosity::VERBOSE) {
            return (string)$this->renderer->renderVerbose($exception);
        }

        return (string)$this->renderer->render($exception);
    }

    public function canRender(string $format): bool
    {
        return \in_array($format, ['html', 'application/html', 'text/html'], true);
    }
}

This custom renderer can then be registered with the Spiral\Exceptions\ExceptionHandler class via a bootloader.

Note
When you register a new renderer, it will be add at the top of renderers list.

php
app/src/Application/Bootloader/ExceptionHandlerBootloader.php
namespace App\Application\Bootloader;

use Spiral\Boot\Bootloader\Bootloader;
use Spiral\Exceptions\ExceptionHandler;
use App\Application\Exception\Renderer\HtmlRenderer;

final class ExceptionHandlerBootloader extends Bootloader
{
    public function init(ExceptionHandler $handler): void
    {
        $handler->addRenderer(new HtmlRenderer());
    }
}

Warning
Don't forget to add this bootloader to the top of bootloaders list in app/src/Application/Kernel.php:

php
app/src/Application/Kernel.php
protected const LOAD = [
    \App\Application\Bootloader\ExceptionHandlerBootloader::class,
    // ...
];

Spiral uses formats to determine which renderer should be used to handle a given exception. The format can be based on the environment, such as cli for console applications or http for HTTP requests. This allows for different renderers to be registered and used depending on the context in which the exception was encountered.

For example, in a console application, it may be more appropriate to use a Spiral\Exceptions\Renderer\ConsoleRenderer that is specifically designed to handle exceptions in a command-line environment. This renderer could include features such as colorizing the stack trace, to make it more readable and easier to understand, while in a web application, a more detailed and visually appealing renderer could be used.

In some cases, it may be useful to render exceptions as a JSON string, especially when working with APIs or other services that expect responses in this format.

php
app/src/Application/Exception/Renderer/JsonRenderer.php
namespace App\Application\Exception\Renderer;
use Spiral\Exceptions\ExceptionRendererInterface;

final class JsonRenderer implements ExceptionRendererInterface
{
    public function render(
        \Throwable $exception,
        ?Verbosity $verbosity = Verbosity::BASIC,
        string $format = null,
    ): string {

        return \json_encode([
            'error'      => \sprintf(
                '[%s] %s as %s:%s',
                $exception::class,
                $exception->getMessage(),
                $exception->getFile(),
                $exception->getLine()
            ),
            'stacktrace' => \iterator_to_array($this->renderTrace($exception->getTrace())),
        ]);
    }

    private function renderTrace(array $trace): array
    {
        // ...
    }
    
    public function canRender(string $format): bool
    {
        return \in_array($format, ['application/json', 'json'], true);
    }
}

And register it:

php
app/src/Application/Bootloader/ExceptionHandlerBootloader.php
public function init(ExceptionHandler $handler): void
{
    $handler->addRenderer(new JsonRenderer());
}

To use this renderer for handling exceptions in a web application, we can create a new middleware that will catch all exceptions and render them using this renderer only when a specific header such as Accept=application/json is present in the request. This allows for a more granular control over how exceptions are handled and displayed to the client, depending on their desired format.

php
app/src/Endpoint/Web/Middleware/ErrorHandlerMiddleware.php
namespace App\Endpoint\Web\Middleware;

use Psr\Http\Server\MiddlewareInterface;
use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface as Response;
use Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface as Request;
use Psr\Http\Server\RequestHandlerInterface as Handler;
use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseFactoryInterface;
use Spiral\Exceptions\ExceptionRendererInterface;
use Spiral\Http\Exception\ClientException;
use Spiral\Router\Exception\RouterException;

class ErrorHandlerMiddleware implements MiddlewareInterface
{
    public function __construct(
        private readonly ExceptionRendererInterface $renderer,
        private readonly ResponseFactoryInterface $responseFactory,
    ) {
    }

    public function process(Request $request, Handler $handler): Response
    {
        try {
            return $handler->handle($request);
        } catch (ClientException|RouterException $e) {
            $code = $e instanceof ClientException ? $e->getCode() : 404;
        } catch (\Throwable $e) {
            $code = 500;
        }


        if ($request->getHeaderLine('Accept') !== 'application/json') {
            throw $e;
        }

        
        $response = $this->responseFactory->createResponse($code);
        $response->getBody()->write(
            (string) $this->renderer->render(
                exception: $e,
                format: 'application/json'
            )
        );

        return $response;
    }
}

As you can see, different renderers can be used for different environments, such as a console renderer for command-line applications, or a JSON renderer for API responses. Additionally, different renderers can be used for different formats.

Verbosity Levels

The verbosity level can be used to control the amount of information that is displayed when an exception is rendered. You can set VERBOSITY_LEVEL in .env file:

dotenv
.env
# Verbosity level
VERBOSITY_LEVEL=verbose # basic, verbose, debug

The possible values are defined by the Spiral\Exceptions\Verbosity enum:

basic or 0

Indicates that only basic information about the exception should be shown. If an error occurs, you will see:

[Spiral\Router\Exception\RouteNotFoundException]
Unable to route `http://127.0.0.1`. in vendor/spiral/framework/src/Router/src/Router.php:75

verbose or 1

Indicates that more detailed information about the exception should be shown. If an error occurs, you will see:

[Spiral\Router\Exception\RouteNotFoundException]
Unable to route `http://127.0.0.1`. in vendor/spiral/framework/src/Router/src/Router.php:75
1. Spiral\Router\Router->Spiral\Router\{closure}() at vendor/spiral/framework/src/Router/src/Router.php:75
2. Spiral\Router\Router->Spiral\Router\{closure}()
3. ReflectionFunction->invokeArgs() at vendor/spiral/framework/src/Core/src/Internal/Invoker.php:73
4. ...

debug or 2

Indicates that the most detailed information about the exception should be shown. If an error occurs, you will see:

[Spiral\Router\Exception\RouteNotFoundException]
Unable to route `http://127.0.0.1`. in vendor/spiral/framework/src/Router/src/Router.php:75
1. Spiral\Router\Router->Spiral\Router\{closure}() at vendor/spiral/framework/src/Router/src/Router.php:75
73 if ($route === null) {
74 $this->eventDispatcher?->dispatch(new RouteNotFound($request));
> 75 throw new RouteNotFoundException($request->getUri());
76 }
77
2. ...

Yii Error Renderer

The Yii Error Handler is a bridge package for Spiral that provides integration with the Yii framework's error handlers.

screenshot

Installation

To install the component:

After package install you need to register bootloader from the package:

php
app/src/Application/Kernel.php
protected const LOAD = [
    // ...
    \Spiral\YiiErrorHandler\Bootloader\YiiErrorHandlerBootloader::class,
    // ...
];

The YiiErrorHandlerBootloader will register all available renderers during initialization. If you wish to register specific renderers.

Built-in renderers

The bridge provides several built-in renderers for displaying errors:

  • HtmlRenderer: Renders error pages as HTML.
  • JsonRenderer: Renders error pages as JSON. This can be useful for handling errors in API requests.
  • PlainTextRenderer: Renders error pages as plain text.

Exception reporting

In addition to renderers, Spiral also allows for the registration of reporters, which can be used to store information about exceptions in a file or send it to an external service like Sentry.

Reporters can be registered with the ExceptionHandler class in a similar way to renderers, by using the addReporter method and providing an instance of a class that implements the Spiral\Exceptions\ExceptionReporterInterface.

php
app/src/Application/Bootloader/ExceptionHandlerBootloader.php
namespace App\Application\Bootloader;

use Spiral\Boot\Bootloader\Bootloader;
use Spiral\Exceptions\ExceptionHandler;
use App\Application\Exception\Reporter\CustomReporter;

final class ExceptionHandlerBootloader extends Bootloader
{
    public function init(ExceptionHandler $handler): void
    {
        $handler->addReporter(new CustomReporter());
    }
}

Available Reporters

Spiral comes with two built-in reporters that are available out of the box, the Spiral\Exceptions\Reporter\LoggerReporter and the Spiral\Exceptions\Reporter\FileReporter.

LoggerReporter

The LoggerReporter is enabled by default and allows you to log exceptions using a logger registered in the application. This can be useful for tracking and analyzing errors over time.

FileReporter

The FileReporter is also enabled by default, it allows you to save detailed information about an exception to a file known as snapshot.

Sentry Reporter

The Sentry Reporter is a bridge package for Spiral that provides integration with the Sentry error reporting.

Installation

To install the component:

composer require spiral/sentry-bridge

After installing the package, you need to add the bootloader from the package to your application.

There are two bootloaders available:

Sentry as a reporter

SentryReporterBootloader registers Spiral\Sentry\SentryReporter in the ExceptionHandler. The Reporter sends the exception to Sentry.

php
app/src/Application/Kernel.php
protected const LOAD = [
    // ...
    \Spiral\Sentry\Bootloader\SentryReporterBootloader::class,
    // ...
];

Sending additional data

To expose current application logs, PSR-7 request state, etc., you can enable additional debug extensions.

Http collector

Use an HTTP collector to send data about the current HTTP request to Sentry.

It will send the following information about the current request:

  • method
  • url
  • headers
  • query params
  • request body

To enable the HTTP collector, you first need to register Spiral\Bootloader\Debug\HttpCollectorBootloader before SentryReporterBootloader.

php
app/src/Application/Kernel.php
protected const LOAD = [
    // ...
    \Spiral\Bootloader\Debug\HttpCollectorBootloader::class,
    \Spiral\Sentry\Bootloader\SentryReporterBootloader::class,
    // ...
];

Then you need to register the middleware Spiral\Debug\StateCollector\HttpCollector in the application.

See more
Read more how to register middleware in the HTTP — Routing section.

Logs collector

Use the Logs collector to send all received logs to Sentry.

To enable the Logs collector, you just need to register Spiral\Bootloader\Debug\LogCollectorBootloader before SentryBootaloder.

php
app/src/Application/Kernel.php
protected const LOAD = [
    // ...
    \Spiral\Bootloader\Debug\LogCollectorBootloader::class,
    \Spiral\Sentry\Bootloader\SentryReporterBootloader::class,
    // ...
];
Custom data collector

You can use the Spiral\Debug\StateInterface class to send custom data to Sentry.

You can request a State object from the container.

php
$state = $container->get(\Spiral\Debug\StateInterface::class);

Add a tag

The method will add tags associated with the current scope

php
$state->addTag('IP address', $currentRequest->getIpAddress());
$state->addTag('Environment', $env->get('APP_ENV'));

Add a variable

The method will add extra data associated with the current scope

php
$state->setVariable('query', $currentRequest->getQueryParams());

Add a log event

The method will add a log event as a breadcrumb to the current scope.

php
$state->addLogEvent(new \Spiral\Logger\Event\LogEvent(
    time: new \DateTimeImmutable(),
    channel: 'default',
    level: 'info',
    message: 'Something went wrong',
    context: ['foo' => 'bar']
));

Extending the error handler

By default, the framework uses Spiral\Exceptions\ExceptionHandler class exceptions handling. If you want to use your own implementation, you can do it by extending it and register during application creation.

php
app.php
use App\Application\Kernel;

// ...

// Initialize shared container, bindings, directories and etc.
$app = Kernel::create(
    directories: ['root' => __DIR__],
    exceptionHandler: \App\Application\ErrorHandler\Handler::class,
)->run();

// ...
Edit this page