Revision: Fri, 31 May 2024 16:11:14 GMT
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Getting started — Directory Structure

Spiral does not impose any directory structure for your application, so you have the flexibility to organize your files and directories. However, it provides a recommended structure that can be used as a starting point. This structure can also be easily modified.


The default directory structure can be controlled via mapDirectories method of Kernel class. By default, all application directories will be calculated based on root using the following pattern:

Directory Value
root set by user
app root/app
config app/config
resources app/resources
runtime root/runtime
cache root/runtime/cache
public root/public
vendor root/vendor

Some components will declare their own directories such as:

Component Directory Value
spiral/views views app/views
spiral/translator locale app/locale
spiral/migrations migrations app/migrations

Init Directories

You can set the value of the root directory, or any other directory, in your app.php file.

$app = \App\Application\Kernel::create(
    directories: ['root' => __DIR__]

For example, if you wanted to change the location of the runtime directory to the system's temporary directory, you would do this:

$app = \App\Application\Kernel::create(
    directories: [
        'root' => __DIR__, 
        'runtime' => \sys_get_temp_dir()

You can access the paths of various directories in your application using the Spiral\Boot\DirectoriesInterface class. This interface provides methods to access the paths of the various directories that are defined through the mapDirectories method.

Here's an example of how you can use the DirectoriesInterface class to access the path of the runtime directory:

use Spiral\Boot\DirectoriesInterface;

final class UploadService {
    public function __construct(
        private readonly DirectoriesInterface $dirs
    ) {}
    public function store(UploadedFile $file) {
        $filePath = $this->dirs->get('runtime') . 'uploads/' . $file->getFilename();
        // ...

You can also use the function directory inside the global IoC scope (config files, controllers, service code).

return [
    'storages' => [
        'file' => [
            'path' => directory('runtime') . 'cache',


By default, all skeleton applications use App root namespace pointing to app/src directory. You can change the base to any desired namespace in composer.json:

  "autoload": {
    "psr-4": {
      "App\\": "app/src/"

Application Structure

The structure we provided below is a common structure used in many PHP applications, and it can serve as a starting point for your projects. By following this structure, you can organize your code in a logical and maintainable way, making it easier to build and scale your applications over time. Of course, you may need to make adjustments to fit the specific needs of your project, but this structure provides a solid foundation for most applications.

- Endpoint
    - Web
        - ...
        - Filter
            - ...
        - Middleware
            - ...
        - Interceptor
            - ...
        - DataGrid
            - ...
        - routes.php
    - Console
        - Interceptor
            - ...
        - ...
    - RPC
        - Interceptor
            - ...
        - ...
    - Temporal
        - Workflow
            - ...
        - Activity
            - ...
    - Centrifugo
        - Interceptor
        - ...
- Application
    - Bootloader
        - ...
    - Exception
        - SomeException.php
        - Renderer
            - ViewRenderer.php
    - Kernel.php
- Domain
    - User
        - Entity
            - User.php
        - Service
            - StoreUserService.php
        - Repository
            - UserRepositoryInterface.php
        - Exception
            - UserNotFoundException.php
- Infrastructure
    - Persistence
        - CycleUserRepository.php
    - CycleORM
        - Typecaster
            - UuidTypecast.php
    - Interceptor
        - LogInterceptor.php

Here's a brief explanation of the directories and files in this structure:

  • Endpoint: This directory contains the entry points for your application, including HTTP endpoints (in the Web subdirectory), command-line interfaces (in the Console subdirectory), and gRPC services (in the RPC subdirectory).

  • Application: This directory contains the core of your application, including the Kernel class that boots your application, the Bootloader classes that register services with the container, and the Exception directory that contains exception handling logic.

  • Domain: This directory contains your domain logic, organized by subdomains. For example, an Entity for the User model, a Service for storing new users, a Repository for fetching users from the database, and an Exception for handling user-related errors.

  • Infrastructure: This directory contains the infrastructure code for your application, including the Persistence directory for database-related code, the CycleORM directory for ORM-related code, and the Interceptor directory for global interceptors.

What's Next?

Now, dive deeper into the fundamentals by reading some articles: