Revision: Fri, 31 May 2024 16:11:14 GMT
v3.8 – outdated
This version of the documentation is outdated. Consider upgrading your project to Spiral Framework 3.12
Edit this page

The Basics — Database and ORM

To utilize the ORM and database functionality in your application, Spiral offers the spiral/cycle-bridge component.

Installation

This component is automatically included in the spiral/app and can also be installed into existing projects through the use of Composer by executing the following command:

composer require spiral/cycle-bridge

After successful installation of the package, it is necessary to add the Spiral\Cycle\Bootloader\BridgeBootloader bootloader to the Kernel:

php
app/src/Application/Kernel.php
protected const LOAD = [
    \Spiral\Cycle\Bootloader\BridgeBootloader::class,
];

Alternatively, for more granular control, the BridgeBootloader can be excluded and selected the only needed bootloaders.

The relevant code for this in Kernel would look like this:

php
app/src/Application/Kernel.php
use Spiral\Cycle\Bootloader as CycleBridge;

protected const LOAD = [
    // ...

    // Database
    CycleBridge\DatabaseBootloader::class,
    CycleBridge\MigrationsBootloader::class,

    // Close the database connection after every request automatically (Optional)
    // CycleBridge\DisconnectsBootloader::class,

    // ORM
    CycleBridge\SchemaBootloader::class,
    CycleBridge\CycleOrmBootloader::class,
    CycleBridge\AnnotatedBootloader::class,
    CycleBridge\CommandBootloader::class,

    // Validation (Optional)
    // CycleBridge\ValidationBootloader::class,

    // DataGrid (Optional)
    // CycleBridge\DataGridBootloader::class,

    // Database Token Storage (Optional)
    CycleBridge\AuthTokensBootloader::class,

    // Migrations and Cycle Scaffolders (Optional)
    CycleBridge\ScaffolderBootloader::class,
    
    // Prototyping (Optional)
    CycleBridge\PrototypeBootloader::class,
];

Disconnects bootloader

The bootloader serves the purpose of automatically closing the database connection after every request in long-running applications. This is an optional bootloader and can be included or excluded as per the requirements of the specific application.

Configuration

Database

The configuration for database services is located in app/config/database.php configuration file. In this file, you may define all of your database connections, as well as specify which connection should be used by default. Most of the configuration options within this file are driven by the values of your application's environment variables.

Here is an example configuration file that defines a database connection:

php
app/config/database.php
use Cycle\Database\Config;

return [
    'logger' => [
        'default' => env('DB_LOGGER_DEFAULT'),
        'drivers' => [
            // 'runtime' => 'stdout'
        ],
    ],

    'default' => env('DB_DEFAULT', 'default'),

    /**
     * The Spiral/Database module provides support to manage multiple databases
     * in one application, use read/write connections and logically separate
     * multiple databases within one connection using prefixes.
     *
     * To register a new database simply add a new one into
     * "databases" section below.
     */
    'databases' => [
        'default' => [
            'driver' => 'runtime',
        ],
    ],

    /**
     * Each database instance must have an associated connection object.
     * Connections used to provide low-level functionality and wrap different
     * database drivers. To register a new connection you have to specify
     * the driver class and its connection options.
     */
    'drivers' => [
        'runtime' => new Config\MySQLDriverConfig(
            connection: new Config\MySQL\TcpConnectionConfig(
                database: 'homestead',
                host: '127.0.0.1',
                port: 3307,
                user: 'root',
                password: 'secret',
            ),
            queryCache: true
        ),
        // ...
    ],
];

Warning
Please note that using SQLite as the database backend with multiple workers can present significant challenges and limitations. It is important to be aware of these limitations to ensure proper functionality and performance of your application. Rad more about this in the SQLite limitations section.

See more
Read more about the configuration of the database in the Database - Installation and Configuration on the official site.

ORM

The configuration for Spiral framework's ORM services is located in your application's app/config/cycle.php

php
app/config/cycle.php
use Cycle\ORM\SchemaInterface;

return [
    'schema' => [
        /**
         * true (Default) - Schema will be stored in a cache after compilation.
         * It won't be changed after entity modification. Use `php app.php cycle` to update schema.
         *
         * false - Schema won't be stored in a cache after compilation.
         * It will be automatically changed after entity modification. (Development mode)
         */
        'cache' => false,

        /**
         * The CycleORM provides the ability to manage default settings for
         * every schema with not defined segments
         */
        'defaults' => [
            SchemaInterface::MAPPER => \Cycle\ORM\Mapper\Mapper::class,
            SchemaInterface::REPOSITORY => \Cycle\ORM\Select\Repository::class,
            SchemaInterface::SCOPE => null,
            SchemaInterface::TYPECAST_HANDLER => [
                \Cycle\ORM\Parser\Typecast::class
            ],
        ],

        'collections' => [
            'default' => 'array',
            'factories' => [
                'array' => new \Cycle\ORM\Collection\ArrayCollectionFactory(),
                // 'doctrine' => new \Cycle\ORM\Collection\DoctrineCollectionFactory(),
                // 'illuminate' => new \Cycle\ORM\Collection\IlluminateCollectionFactory(),
            ],
        ],

        /**
         * Schema generators (Optional)
         * null (default) - Will be used schema generators defined in bootloaders
         */
        'generators' => null,

        // 'generators' => [
        //        \Cycle\Schema\Generator\ResetTables::class,
        //        \Cycle\Annotated\Embeddings::class,
        //        \Cycle\Annotated\Entities::class,
        //        \Cycle\Annotated\TableInheritance::class,
        //        \Cycle\Annotated\MergeColumns::class,
        //        \Cycle\Schema\Generator\GenerateRelations::class,
        //        \Cycle\Schema\Generator\GenerateModifiers::class,
        //        \Cycle\Schema\Generator\ValidateEntities::class,
        //        \Cycle\Schema\Generator\RenderTables::class,
        //        \Cycle\Schema\Generator\RenderRelations::class,
        //        \Cycle\Schema\Generator\RenderModifiers::class,
        //        \Cycle\Annotated\MergeIndexes::class,
        //        \Cycle\Schema\Generator\GenerateTypecast::class,
        // ],
    ],

    /**
     * Prepare all internal ORM services (mappers, repositories, typecasters...)
     */
    'warmup' => false,
];

Cycle ORM

CycleORM is a powerful and flexible Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) tool for PHP that allows developers to interact with databases in an object-oriented way. It provides a range of features that make it easy to work with data including a flexible configuration options, a powerful query builder and support for dynamic mapping of schemas.

It supports a variety of popular relational databases such as MySQL, MariaDB, PostgresSQL, SQLServer, and SQLite.

Note
Full documentation is available on the official site CycleORM.

ORM instance

You can access the ORM instance from the container by using the Cycle\ORM\ORMInterface interface.

Repositories

Let's imagine that we have a User entity

php
use Cycle\Annotated\Annotation as Cycle;

#[Cycle\Entity(repository: UserRepository::class)]
class User
{
    // ...
}

with a UserRepository repository.

php
class UserRepository extends \Cycle\ORM\Select\Repository
{
    public function findByEmail(string $email): ?User
    {
        return $this->findOne(['email' => $email]);
    }
}

You can request a repository from the ORM instance by yourself, by providing the entity or role name.

php
use Cycle\ORM\ORMInterface;
use Cycle\ORM\RepositoryInterface;

class UserService
{   
    private readonly RepositoryInterface $repository;

    public function __construct(
        Cycle\ORM\ORMInterface $orm
    ) {
        $this->repository = $orm->getRepository(User::class);
    }
    
    public function getProfile(string $email): User
    {
        $user = $this->repository->findOne(['email' => $email]);
        // ...
    }
}

You can also request a repository from the container. The framework uses IoC injections to inject repositories into your code that implement Cycle\ORM\RepositoryInterface.

php
class UserService
{
    public function __construct(
        private readonly UserRepository $repository
    ) {
    }
    
    public function getProfile(string $email): User
    {
        $user = $this->repository->findByEmail($email);
        // ...
    }
}

When you request a repository from the container, Spiral will automatically request the repository from the ORM and associate it with the correct Entity.

Transactions

To persist entity changes, your application services and controllers will require Cycle\ORM\EntityManagerInterface.

By default, the framework will automatically create a transaction on-demand from the container. Considering that transactions always clean after the operation run, you can request it as a constructor parameter.

See more
You can read more about transactions in the CycleORM documentation.

Here is an example of a service that uses the EntityManagerInterface:

php
use Cycle\ORM\EntityManagerInterface;

class UserService
{
    public function __construct(
        private readonly EntityManagerInterface $entityManager
    ) {
    }
    
    public function create(string $name, string $email): User
    {
        $user = new User($name, $email);
        
        $this->entityManager->persist($user);
        $this->entityManager->run();
        
        return $user;
    }
}

Note:
Make sure that the persist/delete and run methods are always called within the same method scope while using service-specific transactions.

Entity validation

The Cycle bridge provides a CycleBridge\ValidationBootloader bootloader that registers additional checkers for the spiral/validator package. This bootloader includes two additional validation rules, which enhance the functionality of the validator and allow for more efficient and effective data validation within the application.

exists

Check if an entity with a given role and primary key exists.

By default, a rule will check if an entity exists by the primary key.

php
use Spiral\Filters\Attribute\Input\Post;
use Spiral\Filters\Attribute\Setter;
use Spiral\Filters\Model\Filter;
use Spiral\Filters\Model\FilterDefinitionInterface;
use Spiral\Filters\Model\HasFilterDefinition;

final class StoreUser extends Filter implements HasFilterDefinition
{
    #[Post]
    #[Setter(filter: 'intval')]
    public int $id;
    
    public function filterDefinition(): FilterDefinitionInterface
    {
        return new FilterDefinition([
            'username' => [
                [
                    'entity::exists', 
                    \App\Entity\User::class // Entity role
                ] 
            ]       
        ]);
    }
}

You can also specify the field name and the value, which will be used to check if the entity exists.

php
use Spiral\Filters\Model\Filter;
use Spiral\Filters\Model\FilterDefinitionInterface;
use Spiral\Filters\Model\HasFilterDefinition;

final class UpdateUser extends Filter implements HasFilterDefinition
{
    #[Post]
    public string $username;
    
    public function filterDefinition(): FilterDefinitionInterface
    {
        return new FilterDefinition([
            'username' => [
                [
                    'entity::exists', 
                    \App\Entity\User::class, // Entity role
                    'username', // Field name
                ], 
            ],       
        ]);
    }
}

unique

Check if an entity with a given role is unique.

php
use Spiral\Filters\Attribute\Input\Post;
use Spiral\Filters\Attribute\Setter;
use Spiral\Filters\Model\Filter;
use Spiral\Filters\Model\FilterDefinitionInterface;
use Spiral\Filters\Model\HasFilterDefinition;

final class StoreUser extends Filter implements HasFilterDefinition
{
    #[Post]
    public string $username;
    
    public function filterDefinition(): FilterDefinitionInterface
    {
        return new FilterDefinition([
            'username' => [
                [
                    'entity::unique', 
                    \App\Entity\User::class, // Entity role
                    'username', // Field name
                ] 
            ]       
        ]);
    }
}

Entity behaviors

If you want to use cycle/entity-behavior package in your application, you need to install it first:

composer require cycle/entity-behavior

After that, you need to bind Cycle\ORM\Transaction\CommandGeneratorInterface with \Cycle\ORM\Entity\Behavior\EventDrivenCommandGenerator in the application container:

php
app/src/Application/Bootloader/EntityBehaviorBootloader.php
namespace App\Application\Bootloader;

use Cycle\ORM\Transaction\CommandGeneratorInterface;
use Cycle\ORM\Entity\Behavior\EventDrivenCommandGenerator;
use Spiral\Boot\Bootloader\Bootloader;

final class EntityBehaviorBootloader extends Bootloader
{
    protected const BINDINGS = [
        CommandGeneratorInterface::class => \Cycle\ORM\Entity\Behavior\EventDrivenCommandGenerator::class,
    ];
}

And finally, you need to register the App\Application\Bootloader\EntityBehaviorBootloader in the application kernel:

php
app/src/Application/Kernel.php
protected const LOAD = [
    \App\Application\Bootloader\EntityBehaviorBootloader::class,
    ...
],

That's it! Now you can use entity behaviors in your application.

Interceptors

Cycle Entity Resolution

The Cycle ORM integration provides a Spiral\Cycle\Interceptor\CycleInterceptor interceptor that allows you to automatically resolve entities in controller methods by their primary key.

Note:
Read more about using interceptors in the HTTP — Interceptors section.

To activate interceptor:

php
app/src/Application/Bootloader/AppBootloader.php
namespace App\Application\Bootloader;

use Spiral\Cycle\Interceptor\CycleInterceptor;
use Spiral\Bootloader\DomainBootloader;
use Spiral\Core\CoreInterface;

class AppBootloader extends DomainBootloader
{
    protected const SINGLETONS = [
        CoreInterface::class => [self::class, 'domainCore']
    ];

    protected const INTERCEPTORS = [
        CycleInterceptor::class,
        // ...
    ];
}

After that you can use a cycle entity injection in your controller methods:

php
app/src/Endpoint/Web/HomeController.php
namespace App\Endpoint\Web;

use App\Entity\User;
use Spiral\Router\Annotation\Route;

final class HomeController
{
    #[Route('/users/<user>')]
    public function index(User $user)
    {
        dump($user);
    }
}

Note:
If an entity can't be found the 404 exception will be thrown.

Long-Running

Cycle ORM aims to make the usage of the library in daemonized applications, such as PHP workers running under RoadRunner or Swoole, simpler. The ORM provides multiple options to avoid memory leaks, which can also be applied to batch operations. This helps ensure the stability and efficiency of the application when executing long-running processes.

The package will automatically clean the heap after each request. If you need to clean the heap manually, you can use the following methods:

php
app/src/Domain/User/Service/UserService.php
use Cycle\ORM\ORMInterface;

class UserService
{
    public function __construct(
        private readonly ORMInterface $orm
    ) {
    }
    
    public function create(string $name, string $email): User
    {
        // Create a new user
        
        $this->orm->getHeap()->clean();
    }
}

Console Commands

The Cycle ORM integration provides multiple commands for easier control. You can get help for any of the commands using

php app.php help cycle...

Note
Make sure to enable Spiral\Cycle\Bootloader\CommandBootloader after the cycle bootloaders to activate helper commands.

Database

Command Description
db:list [db] Gets a list of available databases, their tables and records count.
db database name.
db:table <table> Describes a table schema of a specific database.
table A table name (required).
--database A source database.

ORM and Schema

Command Description
cycle Updates (init) the cycle schema from the database and annotated classes.
cycle:migrate Generates the ORM schema migrations.
--run Automatically runs a generated migration.
cycle:render Renders the available CycleORM schemas.
--no-color Displays output without colors.

Note
You can run any cycle command with the -vv flag to see a list of modified tables.


Database

Access database

You can access your databases in controllers and services in several ways:

Using Database provider

php
app/src/Domain/User/Service/UserService.php
use Cycle\Database\DatabaseProviderInterface;

final class UserService 
{
    public function __construct(
        private readonly DatabaseProviderInterface $dbal
    ) {}
    
    public function store(): void
    {
        // Default database
        dump($this->dbal->database());
    
        // Using alias default which points to primary database
        dump($this->dbal->database('default'));
    
        // Secondary
        dump($this->dbal->database('slave'));
    }
}

Using method and Constructor Injections

The DBAL component fully supports IoC injections based on the database name and their aliases:

php
use Cycle\Database\DatabaseInterface;

public function store(
    DatabaseInterface $database, 
    DatabaseInterface $primary,
    DatabaseInterface $slave
): void {
    // Database is an alias for "primary"
    dump($database === $primary);

    dump($primary);
    dump($slave);
}

Using prototype

Access Cycle\Database\DatabaseProviderInterface and default database instance using PrototypeTrait:

php
app/src/Domain/User/Service/UserService.php
final class UserService 
{
    use PrototypeTrait;
    
    public function store(): void
    {
        dump($this->dbal);
        dump($this->db); // default db
    }
}

Run Queries

To run the database query, use the method query:

php
dump(
    $db->query('SELECT * FROM users WHERE id > ?', [
        1
    ])->fetchAll()
);

To execute an update or delete statement, use the alternative method execute:

php
dump(
    $db->execute('DELETE FROM users WHERE id > ?', [
        1,
    ]) // number of affected rows 
);

Note
Read how to use query builders here.

Logging

Spiral provides the capability to log database queries through the use of the spiral/logger component. This component uses Monolog as its default logging driver.

See more
Read more about the logger in the The Basics — Logging section.

The database logging drivers can be configured in the logger section of app/config/database.php configuration file.

php
app/config/database.php
return [
    'logger' => [
        'default' => null,
        'drivers' => [],
    ],

    // ...
];

If no logger driver is defined, the channel with the current database driver name will be used. If the SQLite driver is used to execute queries, the monolog channel name will automatically be set to Cycle\Database\Driver\SQLite\SQLiteDriver.

In this case, you can configure a monolog handler for the channel Cycle\Database\Driver\SQLite\SQLiteDriver in order to log all the database queries.

This can be done by adding the following code in the app/config/monolog.php file:

php
app/config/monolog.php
return [
    'handlers' => [
        // ...

        \Cycle\Database\Driver\SQLite\SQLiteDriver::class => [
            [
                'class' => 'log.rotate',
                'options' => [
                    'filename' => directory('runtime') . 'logs/db.log',
                    'level' => Logger::DEBUG,
                ],
            ],
        ],
    ],
    
    // ...
];

The drivers section of the logger is used to specify which database driver should use the log channel specified by the key.

Let's consider the following database configuration:

php
app/config/database.php
return [
    'logger' => [
        'drivers' => [
            'runtime' => 'console'
        ],
    ],
    
    'databases' => [
        'default' => [
            'driver' => 'runtime',
        ],
    ],
    
    'drivers' => [
        'runtime' => new Config\SQLiteDriverConfig(...),
        // ...
    ],
];

We can use the logger configuration array to map the runtime database driver to the console log channel.

And the following monolog config:

php
app/config/monolog.php
return [
    'handlers' => [
        //...
        'console' => [
            \Monolog\Handler\ErrorLogHandler::class,
        ],
    ],
];

With these configurations, every time you use the runtime database driver, its logs will be sent to the console channel.

You can also point a specific database driver to a specific log channel. For example, you can have a separate log channel for your SQLite database and another for your MySQL database. This way, you can monitor each database's logs individually and troubleshoot any issues specific to each database. This helps you identify and fix issues quickly, without having to sift through a large, complex log file.

php
app/config/database.php
return [
    'logger' => [
        'drivers' => [
            \Cycle\Database\Driver\MySQL\MySQLDriver::class => 'db_logs',
            \Cycle\Database\Driver\SQLite\SQLiteDriver::class => 'console'
        ],
    ],
];

In this case every time when you will use SQLiteDriver database driver it will send logs to the console log channel.

You can also set the default key to a specific log channel. This will be used as the default log channel for all queries executed by the database drivers that are not specified in the drivers section.

php
app/config/database.php
return [
    'logger' => [
        'default' => 'console',
    ],
];

By setting a default log channel, it ensures that even if no specific log channel has been defined for a particular database driver, there is still a channel available for logging.

For example, if a developer sets the default log channel as console, any database driver without a specific log channel assigned to it will have its logs directed to the console channel. This provides a fallback for situations where a log channel has not been defined, ensuring that all logs are captured.

Console Commands

The default Web and GRPC bundles include a set of console commands to view the database schema.

Activate the bootloader Spiral\Cycle\Bootloader\CommandBootloader in your application:

php
app/src/Application/Kernel.php
protected const LOAD = [
    // ...
    \Spiral\Cycle\Bootloader\CommandBootloader::class,
    // ...
];

View available drivers and tables

To view available databases, drivers, and tables:

php app.php db:list

The output:

+------------+------------+---------+---------+-----------+---------+----------------+
| Name (ID): | Database: | Driver: | Prefix: | Status: | Tables: | Count Records: |
+------------+------------+---------+---------+-----------+---------+----------------+
| default | runtime.db | SQLite | --- | connected | users | 0 |
| | | | | | posts | 0 |
+------------+------------+---------+---------+-----------+---------+----------------+

View table schema

To view the details about a particular table:

php app.php db:table posts

The output:

Columns of default.posts:
+---------+----------------+----------------+-----------+----------------+
| Column: | Database Type: | Abstract Type: | PHP Type: | Default Value: |
+---------+----------------+----------------+-----------+----------------+
| id | int | primary | int | --- |
| title | string (255) | text | string | --- |
| user_id | int | integer | int | --- |
+---------+----------------+----------------+-----------+----------------+
Indexes of default.posts:
+-----------------------------------+-------+----------+
| Name: | Type: | Columns: |
+-----------------------------------+-------+----------+
| posts_index_user_id_5e32b9642a0ff | INDEX | user_id |
+-----------------------------------+-------+----------+
Foreign Keys of default.posts:
+------------------+---------+----------------+-----------------+------------+------------+
| Name: | Column: | Foreign Table: | Foreign Column: | On Delete: | On Update: |
+------------------+---------+----------------+-----------------+------------+------------+
| posts_user_id_fk | user_id | users | id | CASCADE | CASCADE |
+------------------+---------+----------------+-----------------+------------+------------+

Migrations

You can create config file app/config/migration.php if you want to configure Cycle ORM Migrations:

php
app/config/migration.php
return [
    /**
     * Directory to store migration files
     */
    'directory' => directory('app').'migrations/',

    /**
     * Table name to store information about migrations status (per database)
     */
    'table' => 'migrations',

    /**
     * When set to true no confirmation will be requested on migration run.
     */
    'safe' => env('APP_ENV') === 'production',
];

Console Commands

Command Description
migrate Performs one or all the outstanding migrations.
--one Execute only one (first) migration.
migrate:replay Replays (down, up) one or multiple migrations.
--all Replays all the migrations.
migrate:rollback Rolls back (default) or multiple migrations.
--all Rolls back all the executed migrations.
migrate:init Initiates the migrations component (create a migrations table).
migrate:status Gets a list of all available migrations and their statuses.

SQLite limitations

When utilizing multiple workers in a web application, it is important to consider how concurrent access to resources such as databases is managed. SQLite, while a reliable and lightweight database solution, poses limitations when it comes to concurrent access by multiple workers.

File-based Database Locking

Firstly, SQLite databases are file-based, meaning they are stored as a single file on disk. This design choice can create issues when multiple workers attempt to access the same SQLite database simultaneously. SQLite utilizes file-level locks to maintain data integrity, allowing only one writer to modify the database file at any given time. As a result, if multiple workers attempt to write to the database concurrently, they will experience contention and potential locking issues, leading to reduced performance and potential data corruption.

Inability to Share In-Memory Databases

Additionally, SQLite does not provide a built-in mechanism to share an in-memory database between multiple processes or workers. In-memory databases are often used for performance optimization, as they eliminate disk I/O operations. However, because SQLite cannot share an in-memory database between processes, each worker would have its own separate copy of the database in memory. This means that any updates made by one worker would not be visible to the other workers, leading to inconsistencies and incorrect results.

Considering these limitations, when using Spiral Framework or any other framework that employs multiple workers, it is advisable to explore alternative database solutions that better support concurrent access. Popular options include client-server databases like MySQL or PostgreSQL, which are designed to handle concurrent connections and provide better scalability in multi-worker environments.