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Security — User Authentication

The framework includes a set of components to authorize users via temporary or permanent tokens from different sources and safely manages the user context.

Note
The component does not enforce any specific User entity interface and does not limit the application to HTTP scope only (GRPC auth is possible as well).

Principle of Work

Auth

The authentication extension will create an IoC scope for Spiral\Auth\AuthContextInterface which points to the currently authorized actor (User, API Client). The actor is fetched from Spiral\Auth\ActorProviderInterface using Spiral\Auth\TokenInterface.

The token is managed by Spiral\Auth\TokenStorageInterface and always includes the payload (for example ["userID" => $id], LDAP creds, etc.). The token payload is used to find current application user via Spiral\Auth\ActorProviderInterface.

The token storage can either store a token in the external source (such as database, Redis, or file) or decode it on a fly. The framework includes multiple token implementations out of the box for a more comfortable use.

Note
You can use multiple token and actor providers inside one application.

Installation and Configuration

To activate the component add the bootloader Spiral\Bootloader\Auth\HttpAuthBootloader:

php
app/src/Application/Kernel.php
public function defineBootloaders(): array
{
    return [
        // ...
        \Spiral\Bootloader\Auth\HttpAuthBootloader::class,
        // ...
    ];
}

Read more about bootloaders in the Framework — Bootloaders section.

Auth Token Storage

The Spiral\Auth\TokenStorageInterface is an interface in the Spiral Framework that defines a standardized set of methods for handling the storage, retrieval, and deletion of authentication tokens. It acts as an abstraction layer over the actual storage mechanism, which can be a session, cache, database, etc.

Configuration

You can specify the default storage mechanism for authentication tokens through the AUTH_TOKEN_STORAGE environment variable in your .env file.

For example:

.env
AUTH_TOKEN_STORAGE=session

Alternatively, set the default storage mechanism in the app/config/auth.php configuration file, like so:

php
app/config/auth.php
return [
    'defaultStorage' => env('AUTH_TOKEN_STORAGE', 'session'),
    // ... other storage options
]

This allows you to specify which implementation of the TokenStorageInterface should be retrieved from the container by default.

Accessing the Default Token Storage

To retrieve the default token storage instance from the application’s service container, use the following code:

php
$storage = $container->get(\Spiral\Auth\TokenStorageInterface::class); 
// Will return a default Session token storage

Token Storage provider

Token storage provider is a service that allows you to retrieve a specific token storage instance by its name. For instance, to obtain a JWT (JSON Web Token) storage instance, you can do the following:

php
$container->get(\Spiral\Auth\TokenStorageProviderInterface::class)
    ->getStorage('jwt');

Token Storage Scope

The Spiral\Auth\TokenStorageScope is designed to act as a context-aware service that provides a straightforward way to access the proper token storage for each incoming request. Unlike global services or controllers, which are singletons and persist across multiple requests, it ensures you are working with the right token storage instance tied to the current request.

php
use Spiral\Auth\TokenStorageScope;

final readonly class UserController {
    public function __construct(
        private \Spiral\Auth\TokenStorageScope $tokenStorage,
    ) {}
    
    public function currentUser() 
    {
        $this->tokenStorage->load('some-id');
      
        $this->tokenStorage->create(['id' => 'some-id']);
          
        $this->tokenStorage->delete($token);
    }
}

For each incoming request to your application, it will guide you to the specific instance of token storage that is designated for that particular request. This ensures that you are always working with the correct, request-specific token storage.

Session Token Storage

To store tokens in PHP session use session value for AUTH_TOKEN_STORAGE environment variable.

dotenv
.env
AUTH_TOKEN_STORAGE=session

Database Token Storage

The framework can store the token in the database via Cycle ORM. If you want to use this type of token you need to install spiral/cycle-bridge package.

composer require spiral/cycle-bridge

See more
Read more about installation and configuration spiral/cycle-bridge in the The Basics — Database and ORM section.

Then you need to activate Spiral\Cycle\Bootloader\AuthTokensBootloader:

php
app/src/Application/Kernel.php
public function defineBootloaders(): array
{
    return [
        // ...
        \Spiral\Bootloader\Auth\HttpAuthBootloader::class,
        \Spiral\Cycle\Bootloader\AuthTokensBootloader::class,
        // ...
    ];
}

Read more about bootloaders in the Framework — Bootloaders section.

To store tokens in Cycle ORM use cycle value for AUTH_TOKEN_STORAGE environment variable.

dotenv
.env
AUTH_TOKEN_STORAGE=cycle

You must generate and run database migration:

php app.php migrate:init
php app.php cycle:migrate -v -r

Or run cycle:sync in order to create the needed table.

Custom Token Storage

Keep in mind that you can also create your own custom implementations of the TokenStorageInterface if the provided implementations do not meet your needs. This allows you to use any storage mechanism that you choose for storing authentication tokens in your application.

To create a custom storage in Spiral, you will need to create a class that implements the Spiral\Auth\TokenStorageInterface interface.

Here is a simple example of a custom token storage implementation:

php
use Firebase\JWT\JWT;
use Firebase\JWT\Key;
use Firebase\JWT\ExpiredException;
use Spiral\Auth\TokenInterface;
use Spiral\Auth\TokenStorageInterface;

final class JwtTokenStorage implements TokenStorageInterface
{
    /** @var callable */
    private $time;

    public function __construct(
        private readonly TokenEncoder $tokenEncoder,
        private readonly string $secret,
        private string $algorithm = 'HS256',
        private readonly string $expiresAt = '+30 days',
        callable $time = null
    ) {
        $this->tokenEncoder = $tokenEncoder;
        $this->expiresAt = $expiresAt;
        $this->time = $time ?? static function (string $offset): \DateTimeImmutable {
            return new \DateTimeImmutable($offset);
        };
    }

    public function load(string $id): ?TokenInterface
    {
        // ...
    }

    public function create(array $payload, \DateTimeInterface $expiresAt = null): TokenInterface
    {
        // ...
    }

    public function delete(TokenInterface $token): void
    {
        // ...
    }
}

Note
Full example of custom token storage can be found here.

Spiral provides several ways to register a token storage.

You will need to obtain an instance of HttpAuthBootloader and use its addTokenStorage method. This method takes two arguments: a name for the storage and a class that implements the Spiral\Auth\TokenStorageInterface.

php
app/src/Application/Bootloader/AppBootloader.php
use Spiral\Boot\Bootloader;
use Spiral\Bootloader\Auth\HttpAuthBootloader;

final class AppBootloader extends Bootloader
{
    public function init(HttpAuthBootloader $httpAuth, JwtTokenStorage $storage): void 
    {
        $httpAuth->addTokenStorage('jwt', $storage);
    }
}

Usage with HTTP layer

Middleware

There are three middleware classes that can be used to obtain the authentication token from the request and authenticate the user based on the token.

  • Spiral\Auth\Middleware\AuthMiddleware - obtains the token from the request with using default token storage and all available transports such as cookies, headers, query parameters, etc.
  • Spiral\Auth\Middleware\AuthTransportMiddleware - obtains the token from the request with using default token storage and a specific transport.
  • Spiral\Auth\Middleware\AuthTransportWithStorageMiddleware - obtains the token from the request with using a specific token storage and a specific transport.

The application bundle provides App\Application\Bootloader\RoutesBootloader, where you can easily define middleware.

php
app/src/Application/Bootloader/RoutesBootloader.php
namespace App\Application\Bootloader;

use Spiral\Auth\Middleware\AuthMiddleware;
use Spiral\Auth\Middleware\AuthTransportMiddleware;
use Spiral\Auth\Middleware\AuthTransportWithStorageMiddleware;
use Spiral\Core\Container\Autowire;

final class RoutesBootloader extends BaseRoutesBootloader
{
    // ...
    protected function middlewareGroups(): array
    {
        return [
            'web' => [
                AuthMiddleware::class,
            ],
            'api' => [
                new Autowire(AuthTransportMiddleware::class, ['transportName' => 'header']),
            ],
            'api_jwt' => [
                new Autowire(AuthTransportWithStorageMiddleware::class, ['transportName' => 'header', 'storage' => 'jwt']),
            ],
        ];
    }
    // ...
}

See more
Read more about middleware in the HTTP — Middleware section.

Token transport

In Spiral, the Spiral\Auth\HttpTransportInterface is used to read and write authentication tokens in HTTP requests and responses using the PSR-7 interfaces.

This interface defines three methods:

  • The fetchToken method is used to retrieve an authentication token from an incoming request. This could be from a cookie, a header, or any other location where the token might be stored.

  • The commitToken method is used to write an authentication token to an outgoing response. This might involve setting a cookie, adding a header, or any other method of storing the token.

  • The removeToken method is used to remove an authentication token from an outgoing response. This might involve unsetting a cookie or removing a header.

There are two transports available for use with the HttpTransportInterface:

  • cookie stores the authentication token in a cookie. When the client makes a request to the server, the cookie is included in the request and can be used to identify the client.

  • header stores the authentication token in an HTTP header X-Auth-Token by default.

You can set the default transport for your application by using the AUTH_TOKEN_TRANSPORT environment variable.

Or define by using defaultTransport key in the app/config/auth.php:

php
app/config/auth.php
return [
    'defaultTransport' => env('AUTH_TOKEN_TRANSPORT', 'cookie'),
    // ... storages
]

Spiral provides several ways to register a token transport.

You will need to obtain an instance of HttpAuthBootloader and use its addTransport method. This method takes two arguments: a name for the transport and a class that implements the Spiral\Auth\HttpTransportInterface.

php
app/src/Application/Bootloader/AppBootloader.php
use Spiral\Boot\Bootloader;
use Spiral\Bootloader\Auth\HttpAuthBootloader;
use Spiral\Auth\Transport\CookieTransport;
use Spiral\Auth\Transport\HeaderTransport;

final class AppBootloader extends Bootloader
{
    public function boot(HttpAuthBootloader $httpAuth): void 
    {
        $httpAuth->addTransport(
          'cookie', 
          new CookieTransport(cookie: 'token', basePath: '/')
        );

        $httpAuth->addTransport(
          'header', 
          new HeaderTransport(header: 'X-Auth-Token')
        );
    }
}

Actor Provider and Token Payload

The next step to configure a way to fetch actors/users is based on token payloads, we must implement and register interface Spiral\Auth\ActorProviderInterface for these purposes.

php
interface ActorProviderInterface
{
    public function getActor(TokenInterface $token): ?object;
}

For this article, we are going to use Cycle Entity and Repository:

php
namespace App\Database;

use Cycle\Annotated\Annotation as Cycle;

#[Cycle\Entity(repository: UserRepository::class)]
#[Index(columns: ['username'], unique: true)]
class User
{
    #[Cycle\Column(type: 'primary')]
    public int $id;

    #[Cycle\Column(type: "string")]
    public string $name;

    #[Cycle\Column(type: "string")]
    public string $username;

    #[Cycle\Column(type: "string")]
    public string $password;
}

We can implement the interface in UserRepository:

php
namespace App\Database\Repository;

use Cycle\ORM\Select\Repository;
use Spiral\Auth\ActorProviderInterface;
use Spiral\Auth\TokenInterface;

class UserRepository extends Repository implements ActorProviderInterface
{
    public function getActor(TokenInterface $token): ?object
    {
        if (!isset($token->getPayload()['userID'])) {
            return null;
        }

        return $this->findByPK($token->getPayload()['userID']);
    }
}

Once the migration is complete, we can create our first user:

php
use Cycle\ORM\EntityManagerInterface;

public function index(EntityManagerInterface $entityManager)
{
    $user = new User();
    
    $user->name = 'Antony';
    $user->username = 'username';
    $user->password = \password_hash('password', PASSWORD_DEFAULT);

    $entityManager->persist($u)->run();
}

Register the actor provider to enable it, create and activate the Bootloader in your application:

php
app/src/Application/Bootloader/UserBootloader.php
namespace App\Application\Bootloader;

use App\Database\Repository\UserRepository;
use Spiral\Boot\Bootloader\Bootloader;
use Spiral\Bootloader\Auth\AuthBootloader;

class UserBootloader extends Bootloader
{
    public function boot(AuthBootloader $auth): void
    {
        $auth->addActorProvider(UserRepository::class);
    }
}

Logout

To log user out call the method close of auth context or AuthScope:

php
public function logout(): void
{
    $this->auth->close();
}

RBAC security

You can use an authenticated user as an actor for the RBAC security component, make sure to implement Spiral\Security\ActorInterface in your App\Database\User:

php
namespace App\Database;

use Spiral\Security\ActorInterface;
use Cycle\Annotated\Annotation as Cycle;

#[Cycle\Entity(repository: UserRepository::class)]
#[Index(columns: ['username'], unique: true)]
class User implements ActorInterface
{
    #[Cycle\Column(type: 'primary')]
    public int $id;

    #[Cycle\Column(type: "string")]
    public string $name;

    #[Cycle\Column(type: "string")]
    public string $username;

    #[Cycle\Column(type: "string")]
    public string $password;

    public function getRoles(): array
    {
        return ['user'];
    }
}

And activate the bootloader Spiral\Bootloader\Auth\SecurityActorBootloader to link two components together:

php
app/src/Application/Kernel.php
public function defineBootloaders(): array
{
    return [
        // ...
        \Spiral\Bootloader\Auth\SecurityActorBootloader::class,
        // ...
    ];
}

Read more about bootloaders in the Framework — Bootloaders section.

Firewall Middleware

You can protect some of your route targets by attaching the firewall middleware to prevent unauthorized access.

Spiral provides the following firewall middlewares:

Firewall which will overwrite the target url

php
use Spiral\Auth\Middleware\Firewall\OverwriteFirewall;

// ...

(new Route('/account/<controller>/<action>', $accountTarget))
        ->withMiddleware(new OverwriteFirewall(new Uri('/account/login')));

Firewall which will throw an exceptions

php
use Spiral\Auth\Middleware\Firewall\ExceptionFirewall;
use Spiral\Http\Exception\ClientException\ForbiddenException;

// ...

(new Route('/account/<controller>/<action>', $accountTarget))
        ->withMiddleware(new ExceptionFirewall(new ForbiddenException()));
php
use Spiral\Http\Exception\ClientException\RedirectFirewall;
use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseFactoryInterface;

// ...

(new Route('/account/<controller>/<action>', $accountTarget))
        ->withMiddleware(new RedirectFirewall(
            uri: new Uri('/account/login'),
            status: 302,
            responseFactory: $container->get(ResponseFactoryInterface::class)
        ));

Firewall which will redirect to the target url

Custom firewall

To implement your firewall, extend Spiral\Auth\Middleware\Firewall\AbstractFirewall:

php
final class CustomFirewall extends AbstractFirewall
{
    public function __construct(
        // args...
    ) {
    }

    protected function denyAccess(Request $request, RequestHandlerInterface $handler): ResponseInterface
    {
        // return response
    }
}

Events

Event Description
Spiral\Auth\Event\Authenticated The Event will be fired after the user authenticated success.
Spiral\Auth\Event\Logout The Event will be fired after the user logout success.

Note
To learn more about dispatching events, see the Events section in our documentation.