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Security - User Authentication

The framework includes the set of components to authorize users via temporary or permanent tokens from different sources and safely manage user context.

Note
The component does not enforce any specific User entity interface and does not limit the application to HTTP scope only (GRPC auth is possible as well).

Principle of Work

The authentication extension will create an IoC scope for Spiral\Auth\AuthContextInterface which points to the currently authorized actor (User, API Client). The actor is fetched from Spiral\Auth\ActorProviderInterface using Spiral\Auth\TokenInterface.

The token is managed by Spiral\Auth\TokenStorageInterface and always includes the payload (for example ["userID" => $id], LDAP creds, etc.). The token payload used to find current application user via Spiral\Auth\ActorProviderInterface.

The token storage can either store token in the external source (such as database, Redis, or file) or decode it on a fly. The framework includes multiple token implementations out of the box for more comfortable use.

Note
You can use multiple token and actor providers inside one application.

Installation and Configuration

To install authorization extension for Web bundle:

composer require spiral/auth spiral/auth-http

Note
The spiral/framework >= 2.6 already includes this component.

The package spiral/auth provides standard interfaces without the relation to any specific dispatching method, while spiral/auth-http includes HTTP Middleware, Token transport (Cookie, Header), and Firewall components.

To activate the component add the bootloader Spiral\Bootloader\Auth\HttpAuthBootloader:

php
[
    // ...
    Framework\Auth\HttpAuthBootloader::class,
    // ...
]

Once installed, you must decide how to store the user authentication token.

Session Token Storage

To store tokens in PHP session make sure that spiral/session extension is installed, to enable session storage use bootloader Spiral\Bootloader\Auth\TokenStorage\SessionTokensBootloader:

php
[
    // ...
    Framework\Auth\HttpAuthBootloader::class,
    Framework\Auth\TokenStorage\SessionTokensBootloader::class,
    // ...
]

Database Token Storage

The framework can store the token in the database via Cycle ORM. If you want to use this type of token you need to install spiral/cycle-bridge package.

composer require spiral/cycle-bridge

Activate Spiral\Cycle\Bootloader\BridgeBootloader for this purpose:

php
[
    // ...
    Framework\Auth\HttpAuthBootloader::class,
    \Spiral\Cycle\Bootloader\BridgeBootloader::class,
    // ...
]

Note
Read more about installation and configuration spiral/cycle-bridge package here.

You must generate and run database migration or run cycle:sync in order to create needed table:

php
$ php app.php migrate:init
$ php app.php cycle:migrate -v -r

Actor Provider and Token Payload

The next step to configure a way to fetch actors/users based on token payloads, we must implement and register interface Spiral\Auth\ActorProviderInterface for these purposes.

php
interface ActorProviderInterface
{
    public function getActor(TokenInterface $token): ?object;
}

For this article, we are going to use Cycle Entity and Repository:

php
namespace App\Database;

use Cycle\Annotated\Annotation as Cycle;

#[Cycle\Entity(repository: UserRepository::class)]
#[Index(columns: ['username'], unique: true)]
class User
{
    #[Cycle\Column(type: 'primary')]
    public int $id;

    #[Cycle\Column(type: "string")]
    public string $name;

    #[Cycle\Column(type: "string")]
    public string $username;

    #[Cycle\Column(type: "string")]
    public string $password;
}

We can implement the interface in UserRepository:

php
namespace App\Database\Repository;

use Cycle\ORM\Select\Repository;
use Spiral\Auth\ActorProviderInterface;
use Spiral\Auth\TokenInterface;

class UserRepository extends Repository implements ActorProviderInterface
{
    public function getActor(TokenInterface $token): ?object
    {
        if (!isset($token->getPayload()['userID'])) {
            return null;
        }

        return $this->findByPK($token->getPayload()['userID']);
    }
}

Once the migration is complete, we can create our first user:

php
use Cycle\ORM\EntityManagerInterface;

public function index(EntityManagerInterface $entityManager)
{
    $user = new User();
    
    $user->name = 'Antony';
    $user->username = 'username';
    $user->password = \password_hash('password', PASSWORD_DEFAULT);

    $entityManager->persist($u)->run();
}

Register actor provider to enable it, create and activate the Bootloader in your application:

php
namespace App\Bootloader;

use App\Database\Repository\UserRepository;
use Spiral\Boot\Bootloader\Bootloader;
use Spiral\Bootloader\Auth\AuthBootloader;

class UserBootloader extends Bootloader
{
    public function boot(AuthBootloader $auth): void
    {
        $auth->addActorProvider(UserRepository::class);
    }
}

Authenticate User

The user authentication process happens via Spiral\Auth\AuthContextInterface. You can receive the instance of the auth context object via method injection.

php
public function index(AuthContextInterface $auth): void
{
    // work with auth context
}

Note
You are not allowed to store AuthContextInterface inside singleton services, see above how to bypass it.

Alternatively, you can use Spiral\Auth\AuthScope which can be stored in singleton services and prototyped via property auth.

php
namespace App\Controller;

use Spiral\Prototype\Traits\PrototypeTrait;

class HomeController
{
    use PrototypeTrait;

    public function index(): void
    {
        dump($this->auth);
    }
}

Login

The user login will require us to create a login form and proper request filter.

php
namespace App\Request;

use Spiral\Filters\Filter;

class LoginRequest extends Filter
{
    public const SCHEMA = [
        'username' => 'data:username',
        'password' => 'data:password'
    ];

    public const VALIDATES = [
        'username' => ['notEmpty'],
        'password' => ['notEmpty']
    ];
}

Create login method in the controller dedicated to authentication:

php
public function login(LoginRequest $login): array
{
    if (!$login->isValid()) {
        return [
            'status' => 400,
            'errors' => $login->getErrors()
        ];
    }

    // application specific login logic
    $user = $this->users->findOne(['username' => $login->getField('username')]);
    if (
        $user === null
        || !password_verify($login->getField('password'), $user->password)
    ) {
        return [
            'status' => 400,
            'error'  => 'No such user'
        ];
    }

    // create token
}

To authenticate the user for the following requests, you must create token with the payload compatible with your ActorProviderInterface (userID => id).

We will need an instance of AuthContextInterface and TokenStorageInterface to do that. We can access both instances via prototype properties auth and authTokens:

php
public function login(LoginRequest $login): array
{
    // ... see above

    // create token
    $this->auth->start(
        $this->authTokens->create(['userID' => $user->id])
    );

    return [
        'status'  => 200,
        'message' => 'Authenticated!'
    ];
}

The user authenticated.

Check if a used authenticated

To see if the user authenticated simply check if auth context has non-empty actor:

php
public function index()
{
    if ($this->auth->getActor() === null) {
        throw new ForbiddenException();
    }
    
    dump($this->auth->getActor());
}

Note
You can use RBAC Security to authenticate and authorize users at the same time.

Logout

To log user out call method close of auth context or AuthScope:

php
public function logout(): void
{
    $this->auth->close();
}

RBAC security

You can use authenticated user as an actor for the RBAC security component, make sure to implement Spiral\Security\ActorInterface in your App\Database\User:

php
namespace App\Database;

use Spiral\Security\ActorInterface;
use Cycle\Annotated\Annotation as Cycle;

#[Cycle\Entity(repository: UserRepository::class)]
#[Index(columns: ['username'], unique: true)]
class User implements ActorInterface
{
    #[Cycle\Column(type: 'primary')]
    public int $id;

    #[Cycle\Column(type: "string")]
    public string $name;

    #[Cycle\Column(type: "string")]
    public string $username;

    #[Cycle\Column(type: "string")]
    public string $password;

    public function getRoles(): array
    {
        return ['user'];
    }
}

And activate the bootloader Spiral\Bootloader\Auth\SecurityActorBootloader to link two components together:

php
[
    // ...
    Framework\Auth\SecurityActorBootloader::class,
    // ...
]

Firewall Middleware

You can protect some of your route targets by attaching firewall middleware to prevent unauthorized access.

By default, spiral provides only one firewall which will overwrite the target url:

php
use Spiral\Auth\Middleware\Firewall\OverwriteFirewall;

// ...

(new Route('/account/<controller>/<action>', $accountTarget))
        ->withMiddleware(new OverwriteFirewall(new Uri('/account/login')));

Custom Firewall

To implement your firewall, extend Spiral\Auth\Middleware\Firewall\AbstractFirewall:

php
use Spiral\Prototype\Traits\PrototypeTrait;
use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface;

final class RedirectFirewall extends AbstractFirewall
{
    use PrototypeTrait;
    
    public function __construct(
        private UriInterface $uri,
        private int $status = 301
    ) {
    }

    protected function denyAccess(Request $request, RequestHandlerInterface $handler): ResponseInterface
    {
        return $this->response->redirect((string) $this->uri, $this->status);
    }
}