Revision: Thu, 22 Feb 2024 17:59:18 GMT
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Framework — Kernel and Environment

Spiral utilizes a kernel object that contains a set of application-specific services. Unlike Symfony, Spiral only requires one kernel for all dispatching methods, such as HTTP, Queue, GRPC Console, etc. The kernel automatically selects the appropriate dispatching method based on the connected Dispatcher.

Note
The base kernel implementation is located in spiral/boot repository.

Kernel Responsibilities

The Spiral\Boot\AbstractKernel class is responsible for the following aspects of the application:

  • Initializing the container through a set of application-specific bootloaders
  • Initializing the bootloaders
  • Initializing the environment and directory structure
  • Initializing the exception handler (if required)
  • Selecting the appropriate dispatcher

To create an application kernel, one must extend the Spiral\Boot\AbstractKernel class. An example of this can be seen in the following code snippet:

php
app/src/Application/MyApp.php
namespace App\Application;

use Spiral\Boot\AbstractKernel;
use Spiral\Boot\Exception\BootException;

final class MyApp extends AbstractKernel
{
    protected const LOAD = [
        // bootloaders to initialize
    ];

    protected function bootstrap(): void
    {
        // custom initialization code
        // invoked after all bootloaders are loaded
    }

    protected function mapDirectories(array $directories): array
    {
        if (!isset($directories['root'])) {
            throw new BootException('Missing required directory `root`');
        }

        if (!isset($directories['app'])) {
            $directories['app'] = $directories['root'] . '/app/';
        }

        return \array_merge(
            [
                // public root
                'public'    => $directories['root'] . '/public/',

                // vendor libraries
                'vendor'    => $directories['root'] . '/vendor/',

                // data directories
                'runtime'   => $directories['root'] . '/runtime/',
                'cache'     => $directories['root'] . '/runtime/cache/',

                // application directories
                'config'    => $directories['app'] . '/config/',
                'resources' => $directories['app'] . '/resources/',
            ],
            $directories
        );
    }
}

Note
The Spiral\Framework\Kernel defines the default directory map.

Kernel initialization

To initialize the kernel, the static method create should be invoked. An example of this can be seen in the following code snippet:

php
app.php
$myapp = MyApp::create(
    directories: [
        'root' => __DIR__,
    ],
    handleErrors: false // do not mount error handler
);

$myapp->run(environment: null); // use default env 

\dump($myapp->get(\Spiral\Boot\DirectoriesInterface::class)->getAll());

Note
During initialization, MyApp will be bound to Spiral\Boot\KernelInterface in the container as a singleton.

Callbacks

The Spiral\Boot\AbstractKernel class provides several callbacks that are executed at different stages of application initialization. These callbacks are running, booting, booted, and bootstrapped. The Spiral\Framework\Kernel class, which extends AbstractKernel, adds additional callbacks, appBooting and appBooted. This allows developers to perform custom actions at specific stages of the application initialization process.

Note
In the application bundle, the default App\Application\Kernel class extends the Spiral\Framework\Kernel class and makes use of these callbacks.

Running

The running callback is the first callback to be executed during the application initialization process. It is executed when the run method is called, immediately after binding the EnvironmentInterface in the application container.

Here is an example of the running callback:

php
app.php
$app = MyApp::create(directories: ['root' => __DIR__]);

$app->running(static function (): void {
    // Do something
});

$app->run();

Note
Callbacks can be called multiple time to register multiple callbacks, they will be invoked in the order they have been registered.

Booting

The booting callback is executed before all the framework bootloaders in the LOAD section are booted.

There are two ways to register a callback for the booting stage:

The booting method can be called on the application instance after it has been created.

php
app.php
$app = MyApp::create(
    directories: ['root' => __DIR__]
);

$app->booting(function () {
    // ...
});

$app->run();

Booted

The booted callback is executed after all the framework bootloaders in the LOAD section have completed their initialization process.

php
$app->booted(function () {
    // ...
});

AppBooting

The appBooting callback is executed before all the application bootloaders in the APP section are booted.

php
$app->appBooting(function () {
    // ...
});

AppBooted

The appBooted callback is executed after all the application bootloaders in the APP section have completed their initialization process.

php
$app->appBooted(function () {
    // ...
});

Environment

Spiral integrates with Dotenv through the Spiral\DotEnv\Bootloader\DotenvBootloader class. This bootloader is responsible for loading the environment variables from the .env file and making them available to the application.

Environment variables

The Spiral\Boot\EnvironmentInterface is used to access a list of environment variables (ENV vars). By default, the framework relies on system-level environment values. However, it is possible to redefine these values while initializing the kernel by passing a custom Spiral\Boot\Environment object to the run method.

See more
Read more about application environments in the Getting started — Configuration section.

An example of this can be seen in the following code snippet:

php
app.php
use \Spiral\Boot\Environment;

// Create an application instance ...

$app->run(new Environment(['DEBUG' => true]));

\dump($app->get(\Spiral\Boot\EnvironmentInterface::class)->getAll());

Note
This approach can be used to bootstrap the application for testing purposes.

.env file location

By default, the bootloader looks for the .env file in the root of the project, but you can change its location by defining the DOTENV_PATH environment variable when running the Kernel:

php
app.php
use Spiral\Boot\Environment;

$app = App\Application\Kernel::create(...);

$app->run(new Environment(['DOTENV_PATH' => __DIR__ . '/.env.production']));

Note
In addition, you can also create your own implementation of the DotenvBootloader class. This allows you to customize the behavior of loading environment variables, such as changing the location where the .env file is searched for, or adding additional functionality. This can be useful in cases where the default bootloader does not meet the specific requirements of your application.

Overwriting variables

By default, Spiral does not overwrite previously set environment variables when loading new ones from the .env file. However, this behavior can be changed by setting the overwrite parameter to true when initializing the Environment class.

php
app.php
use Spiral\Boot\Environment;

$app = App\Application\Kernel::create(...);

$app->run(new Environment([
    'APP_ENV' => 'production'
], overwrite: true));

Events

Event Description
Spiral\Boot\Event\Bootstrapped The Event will be fired after all bootloaders from SYSTEM, LOAD and APP sections initialized.
Spiral\Boot\Event\Serving The Event will be fired before looking for a dispatcher for handling incoming requests in a current environment.
Spiral\Boot\Event\DispatcherFound The Event will be fired when a dispatcher for handling incoming requests in a current environment is found.
Spiral\Boot\Event\DispatcherNotFound The Event will be fired when an application dispatcher is not found.
Spiral\Boot\Event\Finalizing The Event will be fired when finalizer are executed before running finalizers.

Note
To learn more about dispatching events, see the Events section in our documentation.