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Advanced — Task Scheduling

The spiral-packages/scheduler package provides a simple API for running cron job tasks by a schedule. It can be easily integrated with a project based on Spiral.

Installation

To install the package, you can use the following command:

composer require spiral-packages/scheduler

Once the package is installed, you need to add the bootloader from the package to your application:

php
app/src/Application/Kernel.php
protected const LOAD = [
    // ...
    \Spiral\Scheduler\Bootloader\SchedulerBootloader::class,
];

To run the schedule, you have two options:

  1. Add a cron configuration entry to your server that runs the schedule:run command every minute.
* * * * * cd /path-to-your-project && php app.php schedule:run >> /dev/null 2>&1
  1. Run the schedule via RoadRunner by using the schedule:work command. This command will run in the foreground and invoke the scheduler every minute until you terminate the command:
php app.php schedule:work

You can use any supervisor to keep the process running in the background mode, such as supervisord.

Usage

To use the Scheduler package in your project, you can create a new SchedulerBootloader bootloader.

Warning
Don't forget to register SchedulerBootloader in your application!

This bootloader will be responsible for managing cron job tasks:

php
app/src/Application/Bootloader/SchedulerBootloader.php
use Spiral\Boot\Bootloader\Bootloader;
use Spiral\Scheduler\Schedule;
use Psr\Log\LoggerInterface;
use Spiral\Boot\DirectoriesInterface;

final class SchedulerBootloader extends Bootloader
{
    public function boot(Schedule $schedule, DirectoriesInterface $dirs): void
    {
        // Run console command by name
        $schedule->command('ping', ['https://google.com'])
            ->everyFiveMinutes()
            ->withoutOverlapping()
            ->appendOutputTo($dirs->get('runtime').'logs/cron.log');
            
        // Run console command by class name
        $schedule->command(PingCommand::class, ['https://google.com'])
            ->everyFiveMinutes()
            ->withoutOverlapping()
            ->appendOutputTo($dirs->get('runtime').'logs/cron.log');
            
        // Run callable task
        $schedule->call('Ping url', static function (LoggerInterface $logger, string $url) {
            $headers = @get_headers($url);
            $status = $headers && \strpos($headers[0], '200');

            $logger->info(\sprintf('URL: %s %s', $url, $status ? 'Exists' : 'Does not exist'));

            return $status;
        }, ['url' => 'https://google.com'])
           ->everyFiveMinutes()
           ->withoutOverlapping();
    }
}

This example demonstrates how to use the Scheduler package to schedule different types of commands to run at specific intervals and how to configure the schedule to prevent overlapping and log output.

Now you can check that cron job tasks are registered:

php app.php schedule:list
+--------------------------------------------------------+-------------+-------------+----------------------------+
| Command | Interval | Description | Next Due |
+--------------------------------------------------------+-------------+-------------+----------------------------+
| /usr/bin/php8.1 app.php ping 'https://google.com' | */5 * * * * | | 2023-01-12 12:55:00 +00:00 |
| /usr/bin/php8.1 app.php ping:site 'https://google.com' | */5 * * * * | Ping site | 2023-01-12 12:55:00 +00:00 |
| callback: 'url' | */5 * * * * | Ping url | 2023-01-12 12:55:00 +00:00 |
+--------------------------------------------------------+-------------+-------------+----------------------------+

Callbacks

You can use the before, then, when, and skip methods to register callbacks.

Before callback

The before method can be used to register a callback that will be called before the scheduled task is executed. This callback can be used to perform any necessary preparation or setup before the task runs.

php
$schedule->command('backup:run')
   ->everyFiveMinutes()
   ->before(static fn(Notifier $notifier) => $notifier->send('Starting backup...'));
   -> ...;

Then callback

The then method can be used to register a callback that will be called after the scheduled task is executed. This callback can be used to perform any necessary cleanup or additional processing after the task runs.

php
$schedule->command('backup:run')
   ->everyFiveMinutes()
   ->then(static fn(Notifier $notifier) => $notifier->send('Backup completed'));
   -> ...;

When callback

The when method can be used to register a callback that will be called to determine whether the scheduled task should be executed or not. This callback can be used to check for any constraining conditions that may prevent the task from running. If the when callback returns false, the scheduled task will not be executed.

php
$schedule->command('email:digest')
   ->everyFiveMinutes()
   ->when(static fn(HolidaysCalendar $calendar) => !$calendar->isHoliday());
   -> ...;

Skip callback

The skip method can be used to register a callback that will be called to determine whether the scheduled task should be skipped or not. This callback can be used to check for any conditions that would prevent the task from running. If the skip callback returns true, the scheduled task will not be executed.

php
$schedule->command('email:digest')
   ->everyFiveMinutes()
   ->skip(static fn(HolidaysCalendar $calendar) => $calendar->isHoliday());
   -> ...;

Background tasks

You can run a task in the background by using the runInBackground() method:

php
$schedule->command('ping', ['https://google.com'])
   ->everyFiveMinutes()
   ->runInBackground()
   -> ...;

Warning
Don't run callable tasks in the background. This will cause an error.

Prevent tasks from overlapping

When withoutOverlapping() method is used, the package will check if the command or function is already running before scheduling a new instance of it. If an instance of the command or function is already running, the new instance will not be scheduled and will be skipped. This helps to prevent multiple instances of the same command or function from running simultaneously and potentially causing issues.

php
$schedule->command('ping', ['https://google.com'])
   ->everyMinute()
   ->withoutOverlapping()
   -> ...;

In addition to the default behavior of the method, you can also specify a custom lock expiration time in minutes. This can be done by passing an integer value as an argument to the method.

php
$schedule->command('ping', ['https://google.com'])
   ->everyMinute()
   ->withoutOverlapping(60)
   -> ...;

Note
By default, the lock expiration time is 24 hours.

Cron expressions

You can use the expression argument to assign a custom cron expression to a task.

For example, the following code assigns a cron expression of * * * * * (which corresponds to running every minute) to the email:send command:

php
$schedule->command('email:send', expression: new \Cron\CronExpression('* * * * *'));

Additionally, you can use helper methods to define your schedule in a more human-readable way. These methods include:

Minutes

Method Description
everyMinute() Every minute: * * * * *
everyEvenMinute() Every even minute: */2 * * * *
everyFiveMinutes() Every five minutes: */5 * * * *
everyTenMinutes() Every ten minutes: */10 * * * *
everyFifteenMinutes() Every fifteen minutes: */15 * * * *
everyThirtyMinutes() Every thirty minutes: 0,30 * * * *

Note
More examples of how to schedule a task to run at specific minutes you can find here.

Hours

Method Description
hourly() Every hour at 00 minutes: 0 * * * *
hourlyAt(15) Every hour at the specified minute: 15 * * * *
hourlyAt(15, 30, 45) Every hour at 15, 30, 45 minutes: 15,30,45 * * * *
everyTwoHours() Every day at 00:00: 0 0 * * *

Note
More examples of how to schedule a task to run on at hourly basis you can find here.

Days

Method Description
daily() Every day at 00:00: 0 0 * * *
daily(13) Every day at the specified time: 0 13 * * *
daily(3, 15, 23) Every day at 03:00, 15:00, 23:00: 0 3,15,23 * * *
twiceDaily(1, 13) Every day at 01:00, 13:00: 0 1,13 * * *
lastDayOfMonth() Every month on the last day at 00:00: 0 0 L * *
lastDayOfMonth(12) Every month on the last day at 12:00: 0 12 L * *
lastDayOfMonth(12, 30) Every month on the last day at 12:30: 30 12 L * *
lastWeekdayOfMonth() Every month on the last weekday at 00:00: 0 0 LW * *
lastWeekdayOfMonth(12) Every month on the last weekday at 12:00: 0 12 LW * *
lastWeekdayOfMonth(12, 30) Every month on the last weekday at 12:30: 30 12 LW * *

Note
More examples of how to schedule a task to run on an daily basis you can find here.

Days of week

Method Description
weekly() Every week on monday: 0 0 * * 0

Note
More examples of how to schedule a task to run on at weekly basis you can find here.

Months

Method Description
monthly() Every month on 1-st day at 00:00: 0 0 1 * *
monthly(12) Every month on 1-st day at 12:00: 0 12 1 * *
monthly(12, 30) Every month on 1-st day at 12:30: 30 12 1 * *
monthlyOn(15, 12) Every month on 15-st day at 12:00: 0 12 15 * *
monthlyOn(15, 12, 30) Every month on 15-st day at 12:30: 30 12 15 * *
quarterly() Every quarter yyyy-01,03,06,09-01 00:00: 0 0 1 1-12/3 *
yearly() Every year yyyy-01-01 00:00: 0 0 1 1 *

Note
More examples of how to schedule a task to run on at monthly basis you can find here.

Console commands

List the scheduled jobs

Use the schedule:list command to list all of the scheduled jobs:

php app.php schedule:list

Start the schedule worker

Use the schedule:work command to start the schedule worker:

php app.php schedule:work